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Tensile/OHT, FHT

Tensile and tensile shearing tests are performed in a range of different versions.

Tensile Test on Single Filaments
The diameter of the individual filaments lies in the micrometer range. The filament is first secured to a small paper frame according to ISO 11566 and then aligned and fixed in the clamping mechanism of the testing machine. After cutting through the frame, the properties can be determined under tensile load.

Filament Strand

Tensile Test on Filament Strands
Normally, the filament strands are coated in resin first and then cut into lengths. Cap strips made from cardboard or plastic are glued to the ends so that the tensile force can be applied evenly to the specimen. Tools such as the Zwick extensometers Makro and MultiXtens are suitable for measuring elongation. 

Tensile Test on Pultruded GFRP Bars

Tensile Test on Pultruded GFRP Bars
Depending on the design and surface structure of the specimen, testing is done with cap strips on the clamping ends, or without cap strips with special jaw inserts for hydraulic or pneumatic specimen grips. This test is described in ASTM D 3916. 

  • Tensile Test on Unidirectional Laminates
  • Tensile Test on Multidirectional Laminates

Tensile Test on Unidirectional Laminates
Unidirectional laminates are normally tested longitudinally for fiber strength and transversely for bond strength. The specimens are reinforced at the ends with cap strips to avoid jaw breaks. This test, which is described in the ISO, ASTM, EN, AITM, BSS, DIN, SACMA and CRAG standards, places high demands on the quality of the extension measurement and on the alignment accuracy.


Tensile Test on Multidirectional Laminates
Depending on the size of the textile structure, multidirectional laminates are tested with large specimen widths of 25 mm or even 50 mm. According to ISO 527-4, the thickness of the specimen can also be up to 10 mm. Due to the large specimen cross-sections, very large tensile forces of over 300 kN can occur. To measure strain, Zwick uses strain gages, mechanical extensometers (Clip-on, Makro, MultiXtens) or optical extensometers (VideoXtens, LaserXtens). 

Notch Tensile Test (Open Hole Tensile)
This test characterizes the influence of a hole on the tensile strength of a laminate. The result is usually presented as a notch factor, which gives the ratio of damaged to undamaged specimen

Tensile Test on Bolted Laminates (Filled Hole Tensile)
This test uses the same specimen as the notch tensile test and the hole is closed with a threaded connection. 

figure 1: Tensile test on filament strands 
figure 2: 
Tensile test on pultruded GFRP bars
figure 3 and 4: 
Tensile test on laminates


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